Periodontoloģija jeb zobu balstaudu ārstēšana

Periodontology is the treatment of the tissue surrounding the teeth. Periodontal diseases are widespread in all age groups. Younger patients tend to have inflammation of the gums, which manifest as a bleeding gums, called gingivitis. Gingivitis can be treated by careful mouth hygiene and regular dental hygiene procedures. Consequences of untreated inflammation of the gums is decay of the bone tissue surrounding the teeth, called periodontitis. It is impossible to cure this disease, but progression can be stopped and symptoms relieved if the patient improves his hygiene of the oral cavity. The main signs of advanced periodontitis are bleeding, inflamed and red gums, bad breath and taste, and loose teeth.
To provide for healing of the periodontal tissue (gums and supporting tissue) the following stages of the treatment are planned.

STAGES OF BASIC TREATMENT
  • Careful examination (clinical and x-rays) of the patient’s periodontal tissue is provided and further treatment plan is set if necessary.
  • The patient is informed about remedies and supplies for oral hygiene, is informed about the importance of regular and careful oral hygiene, because plaque is the cause of the periodontal disease. The periodontologist will advise to extract untreatable teeth and refer the patient to a competent specialist for further therapy.
  • The next step is removal of the plaque, supragingival and subgingival tartar, removal of the infected cementum of the dental root, and curettage of the gingival pocket. (Image B; after periodontal treatment.).
EVALUATION OF BASIC TREATMENT

6 to 8 weeks after basic treatment the results and oral hygiene are evaluated, and if necessary the amount of surgical treatment of the periodontal tissue is determined.

PERIODONTAL (CORRECTIVE) SURGERY
  • Surgical treatment of the periodontal tissue is carried out if necessary: reduction of the gum flap, reshaping of the contour of the bone, treatment of mucogingival problems, preparation for prosthetics (extending of the teeth crown).
  • One of the most common complaints is gum recession. It can be caused by an incorrect teeth brushing technique, periodontal disease, malpositioned teeth, or localisation of the lingual frenulum close to the gum border. After evaluation of the amount and stage of the gum recession, plastic surgery of the gums can be performed.
  • Periodontal plastic surgery uses magnifying lenses for perfect visualisation of the field of surgery, and microsurgery instruments as the tissue of the gum is very fragile and delicate. Microsurgery has the benefit of excellent aesthetic outcome and good healing. (Images before and after microsurgical treatment of gum recession.)
MAINTENANCE TREATMENTS

Regular visits 2 to 4 times per year are necessary to maintain the treatment results and to avoid recurrence.

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